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What Is Burden Sharing Agreement
Keywords: fight against greenhouse gases, climate policy, distribution, international environmental agreements Keywords: burden-sharing, EU policy, Member States, refugee management References to `burden-sharing`, `sharing responsibilities` or what the Lisbon Treaty now prefers to call `solidarity between Member States` are often heard in EU policy. Recently, these references have been major references in the areas of financial bailout in the context of EMU, EU climate change policy and cooperation between Member States in the field of defence. This article aims to contribute to the nascent debate on the European distribution of the burden by addressing the following questions: why and under what conditions does the allocation of burdens between Member States take place? Why are “burdens” unevenly distributed and how do we explain existing burden-distributing patterns between states? Why are effective and equitable burden-distributing agreements so difficult to implement? These issues are addressed, first of all by giving an overview of the theoretical debate on the motivations and mechanisms for burden-sharing in the EU; and secondly, by illustrating some of the challenges and limitations of a fair distribution of burdens in the case of EU refugee management. Abstract: Two decades after the creation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the parties have reached a general political consensus to support the reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions, but debate continues on how to fairly distribute the burden of mitigation across the country. As part of the December 2015 Paris Agreement, countries submitted national contributions (PNNs) to reduce greenhouse gases. I analyze these mitigation objectives to assess how similar they are to some load-sharing proposals. The results could have several applications during the UNFCCC process, including simulating how climate change commitments could develop as countries become richer and taking into account how increased ambitions could be allocated, while maintaining the current implicit allocation of burdens. One of the main challenges facing participants in the global climate change negotiations is to find a burden-sharing system that can be accepted as “fair” by all governments, or at least by most governments. In this article, we first examine what basic principles of fairness seem sufficiently recognized to serve as a normative basis for such a system. We then look at a series of proposals to differentiate the commitments made by governments in the negotiations leading up to the Kyoto Protocol to determine which principles were met.
In the final section, we discuss the implications of our analysis for the development of more specific burden-sharing rules. . Blok, K., G. J.M Phylipsen and J. W. Bode (1997), “The Triptique Approach: Burden Differentiation of CO2 Emissions Reduction Reduction Among European Union Member States,” Department of Science, Technology and Society, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands. OECD (1974), cross-border pollution problems. Paris: OECD. March, J.G.
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